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Akkus, Brennstoffzellen und Redox Flow Zellen - elektrochemische Energiespeicher

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

2021 roadmap on lithium sulfur batteries

 

Oxis Energy hat einen Li-S Akku (Lithium Metal anode, Sulfur-based cathode), lieferfähig ab Sommer 2022, Testzellen ab diesen Herbst. Eine Fabrik in UK, eine zweite für 5 Mio Zellen/Jahr wird in Brasilien gebaut.

"OXIS has set forecast targets of 600Wh/kg and 900Wh/L to be achieved by 2026"

2021/04/21 British company to produce solid-state lithium-sulfur products this year

2021/04/23 Solid-state lithium-sulfur cell technology set to become a reality

Nominal voltage: 2.1 V

Typical capacity: 10 – 35 Ah

Specific Energy: Up to 400 Wh/kg

tsb_44134466385-702x459.jpg

 

Factorial Energy, ein neuer Player mit 40 Ah Solid State Akku.

2021/04/20 Factorial Energy Emerges from Stealth Mode, Unveiling Groundbreaking 40 Amp-Hour Solid-State Battery Cell for EVs

"Former Panasonic North America CEO Joe Taylor Named Executive Chairman; Global Auto Leaders Dieter Zetsche, Mark Fields, Harry Wilson Join Factorial Advisory Board"

2021/04/21 Factorial Energy emerges from stealth with 40 Ah solid-state battery cell for EVs

DSC08375.jpg

 

Saint-Gobain Ceramics hat ein Akku JV mit Addionics

2021/04/20 Saint-Gobain Ceramics (Massachusetts, U.S.) and Addionics IL Ltd. (Tel Aviv, Israel) Will Collaborate on Developing High-Power, High-Capacity Solid-State Batteries for Long-Range, Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

2021/04/24 Festkörperbatterie-Hersteller ProLogium erhält einen weiteren Edison Award

Zitat

Martin Eberhard, Mitbegründer, ursprünglicher CEO und Vorsitzender von Tesla: "Die Festkörperelektrolytbatterie-Technologie von ProLogium ist die aufregendste neue Entwicklung, die ich in diesem Bereich gesehen habe. Die Kombination aus Sicherheit, Alterungseigenschaften, schneller Laderate und bipolarem Packaging, alles ohne Abstriche bei der Energiedichte und zu einem wettbewerbsfähigen Preis, machen die ProLogium-Zellen zu den besten, die ich für Automobilanwendungen gesehen habe."

 

Die Produktionskapazität soll auf 1..2 GWh in 2022 ausgeweitet werden. Vinfast will die Akkus in Lizenz für die eigenen E-Autos herstellen.

2021/03/06 Vinfast And ProLogium Hint At JV To Produce Solid-State Battery Packs

 

2021/04/21 Bosch Hydrogen Powertrain Systems: Bosch gründet Brennstoffzellen-Unternehmen in China

2021/04/23 Bosch to invest €1bn into fuel cell technology

 

EKPO (= JV Elring Klinger + Plastic Omnium) produziert PEMFC mit 76 .. 150  kWel in Serie

2021/04/23 Ekpo Fuel Cell Technologies „Die Kosten pro Brennstoffzellenstack werden auf ein Fünftel sinken“ (Paywall)

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

Solid Power hat 130 M$ eingesammelt.

2021/05/03 Ford, BMW lead $130 mln investing round in solid-state battery startup

"Ford and BMW will own equal, unidentified stakes in Solid Power"

 

Murata will 100 000 Kleinstakkus (ähnlich Multilayer-Keramikkondensator) pro Monat produzieren

(3,8V / 2 .. 25 mAh / 5 .. 10 × 5 .. 10 × 2 .. 6 mm)

2021/05/02 Murata to mass-produce all-solid-state batteries in fall

murata.com/en-eu/article/solid-state-battery-that-supports-wearables-1

murata_01_a04-en2a_2.png

 

Ähnliches gibt es von tdk-electronics .. ceracharge und ngk-insulators .. enercera

CeraCharge_BCT1812M101AG.pdf (1.5V / 100uAh / 4.4 x 3.0 x 1.1 mm)

Enercera_200805_en.pdf ( 2.3V / 5 .. 27mAh / 27 .. 38 x 17 .. 27 x 0.45 mm )

 

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

Bei der Recyclingquote wird leider nicht berücksichtigt welche und wieviel Materialien tatsächlich wiederverwendet werden und ob ein Downcycling stattfindet. Bisher eine schmutzige Industrie.

Die Statistiken glänzen wegen der hohen Recyclingquote bei Bleiakkus (=90% aller Altakkus).

Video 2021/01: Volkswagen Electric Car Battery Recycling Plant

Video 2021/04: How Tesla’s Battery Mastermind Is Tackling EV's Biggest Problem

2020/02 Recycling-Quote hinkt Fortschritten hinterher

"deshalb gehöre es zur bitteren Realität, dass sich die Materialrückgewinnung trotz steigender Rohstoffpreise nicht lohne, die Förderung von Lithium oder Kobalt sei derzeit einfach billiger."

02-2020-Batterie-Recycling-Elektroautos-

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

 Review of Power-to-X Demonstration Projects in Europe, Front. Energy Res., 2020

Zitat

As of June 2020, a total of 220 PtX research and demonstration projects in Europe have either been realized, completed, or are currently being planned.

..

Synthetic gaseous fuels are the focus of fuel production, while liquid fuel production is severely under-represented. Solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOECs) represent a very small proportion of projects compared to polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) and alkaline electrolyzers. This is also reflected by the difference in installed capacities. While alkaline electrolyzers are installed with capacities between 50 and 5000 kW (2019/20) and PEM electrolyzers between 100 and 6000 kW, SOECs have a capacity of 150 kW. France and Germany are undertaking the biggest efforts to develop PtX technologies compared to other European countries. On the whole, however, activities have progressed at a considerably faster rate than had been predicted just a couple of years ago.

 

Power-to-liquid via synthesis of methanol, DME or Fischer–Tropsch-fuels: a review, Energy Environ. Sci., 2020,13,3207

Zitat

In the case of power-to-methanol and power-to-FT-fuels, several pilot plants have been realised and the first commercial scale plants are planned or already in operation. In comparison power-to-DME is much less investigated and in an earlier stage of development. For methanol the direct CO2 hydrogenation offers advantages through less by-product formation and lower heat development. However, increased water formation and lower equilibrium conversion necessitate new catalysts and reactor designs. While DME synthesis offers benefits with regards to energy efficiency, operational experience from laboratory tests and pilot plants is still missing. Furthermore, four major process routes for power-to-DME are possible, requiring additional research to determine the optimal concept. In the case of Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, catalysts for direct CO2 utilisationare still in an early stage. Consequently, today’s Fischer–Tropsch-based PtL requires a shift to syngas, benefiting from advances in co-electrolysis and reverse water-gas shift reactor design.

 

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Holgerli
Posted
vor einer Stunde von reko:

As of June 2020, a total of 220 PtX research and demonstration projects in Europe have either been realized, completed, or are currently being planned.

Die Aussage ist so natürlich klasse: Entweder sind sie fertig oder abgeschlossen oder aber es wird noch dran rumgeplant.

Warum man die Aussage so Wischi/waschi hält wird spätestens klar wenn man sich die real installierten Kapazitäten anschaut.

Mehr als homeopathische Kapazitäten (im Vgl. zu benötigten Kapazitäten) wurden nämlich nicht installiert.

 

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

Graphene Manufacturing Group (GMG) (AU0000139990) hat einen Graphen Aluminium Ionen Akku entwickelt. Knopfzellen  sollen ab Ende dieses Jahr, automotive Pouchzellen ab Anfang 2024 vermarktet werden.

2021/05/13 Developer Of Aluminum-Ion Battery Claims It Charges 60 Times Faster Than Lithium-Ion, Offering EV Range Breakthrough

Zitat

claimed to charge up to 60 times faster than the best lithium-ion cells and hold three time the energy of the best aluminum-based cells.

They are also safer, with no upper Ampere limit to cause spontaneous overheating, more sustainable and easier to recycle, thanks to their stable base materials. Testing also shows the coin-cell validation batteries also last three times longer than lithium-ion versions.

..

The new battery cells are claimed to deliver far more energy density than current lithium-ion batteries, without the cooling, heating or rare-earth problems they face.

.. “They don’t need circuits for cooling or heating, which currently accounts for about 80kg in a 100kWh pack.”

Präsentation graphenemg.com .. 2021/05/GMG_-Pitchdeck-May-21-FINAL.pdf

Bei der Graphenherstellung aus Methan fällt blauer Wasserstoff als Nebenprodukt an.

"The proprietary process is held as a trade secret with a number of product applications patent-pending"

 

wiki/Aluminium-ion_battery: "Al-ion batteries have the potential to replace Li-ion batteries"

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

2021/05/14 Top 81 Startups, developing energy-efficient batteries

 

Current and future lithium-ion battery manufacturing, 2021

Zitat

Here in this perspective paper, we introduce state-of-the-art manufacturing technology and analyze the cost, throughput, and energy con-sumption based on the production processes. We then review the research prog-ress focusing on the high-cost, energy, and time-demand steps of LIBmanufacturing. Finally, we share our views of challenges in LIB manufacturingand propose future development directions for manufacturing research in LIBs.

 

Abgesehen von der Brandgefahr sind Li-Ion Akkus wegen der Zusammensetzung des flüssigen Elektrolyts problematisch. Bei brennenden Akkus oder in Verbindung mit Wasser wird Flusssäure freigesetzt. Flusssäure ist ein starkes Kontaktgift - die maximale Arbeitplatzkonzentration ist 1 ml pro m³.

2020 Lithium-Ion Battery Material Transportation Overseas

Zitat

Though these batteries are standard electronics components, they still pose a danger for those nearby if they do not have proper storage or shipping conditions.

..

Some commonly-used solvents and their hazards include the following:

1,2 Diethoxyethane: Flammable and toxic

1,2 Dimethoxyethane: Flammable and toxic

1,3 Dioxolane: Flammable

y-Butyrolactone: Harmful

Diethyl carbonate: Flammable

Dimethoxymethane: Flammable and irritating

Dimethyl carbonate: Flammable

Ethylene carbonate: Irritating

Ethyl methyl carbonate: Flammable and irritating

Propylene carbonate: Irritating

Tetrahydrofuran: Flammable

 

.. lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), converts to highly corrosive and toxic hydrogen fluoride (HF) when it reacts with water or moisture from the air.

.. Other lithium salts used in the manufacture of Li-ion batteries and their dangers include the following:

Lithium Bis (oxalato) Borate: Irritating

Lithium Bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) Imide: Corrosive and toxic

Lithium Hexafluoroarsenate: Toxic

Lithium Iodide: No severe hazards reported

Lithium Perchlorate: Irritating and oxidizer

Lithium Tetrafluoroborate: Corrosive and harmful

Lithium Trifluoromethane Sulfonate: Irritating

Tetraethyl-Ammonium Tetrafluoroborate: Irritating and harmful

Triethyl-Methyl-Ammonium Tetrafluoroborate: Corrosive and harmful

 

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Holgerli
Posted · Edited by Holgerli

@rekoMal 'ne Frage an Dich als Wasserstoff-/Brennstoffzellen-Träumer im PKW-Bereich:

1.) Ist Wasserstoff nicht brennbar/explosiv?

2.) Ist Methanol nicht brennbar?

3.) Ist es nicht so, dass auch Wasserstoff-Autos Akkus und einen Elektromotor brauchen?

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

2021/05/25 Urgent Need for New Stationary Storage

Zitat

Metals shortages are taking over from too few gigafactories as the primary impediment ongoing.

 

2021/05/26 Lithium-ion battery recycling won't solve the Raw Materials shortage but it is an exciting industry

Zitat

up to 30% of the cells produced may be faulty and, even once a factory has settled down into series production, up to 10% of cells may fail usage tests.

 

2021/05/29 Emiral Resources: A CEO’s view on the EV revolution

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reko
Posted · Edited by reko

In China starben 2 Feuerwehrleute bei der Explosion eines stationären 25 MWh Lithium-Eisen-Phosphat Akkus.

2021/05/25 Accident analysis of the Beijing lithium battery explosion which killed two firefighters

 

LFP Akkus gelten als sicherer aber nicht absolut sicher.

2019 Causes and Consequences of Explosion of LiFePO4 Battery

 

Ein Solid-State Zink-Luft Akku

2021/05/17 Researchers create new zinc-air pouch cells

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Bonny
Posted

In diesem Artikel wird eine Reihe möglicher Entwicklungen in Bezug auf Antriebs- und Batterieentwicklung  erörtert:

 

https://t3n.de/news/akku-technologie-elektroauto-lithium-1090835/

 

Interessant, wie oft Tesla dabei genannt wird.

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Halicho
Posted · Edited by Halicho
Am 19.5.2021 um 14:09 von Holgerli:

@rekoMal 'ne Frage an Dich als Wasserstoff-/Brennstoffzellen-Träumer im PKW-Bereich:

1.) Ist Wasserstoff nicht brennbar/explosiv?

2.) Ist Methanol nicht brennbar?

3.) Ist es nicht so, dass auch Wasserstoff-Autos Akkus und einen Elektromotor brauchen?

Ich antworte stellvertretend: die  Lithium-Ionen-Akkus enthalten ihren Oxidator. Sie brennen unlöschbar. In Wasserstoffautos werden  eigensichere, zyklenfeste Akkus z.B. LiPo verwendet.

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